MENKES KINKY HAIR SYNDROME
Menkes kinky hair syndrome is an X-linked recessive multisystemic lethal disorder of copper metabolism. The clinical phenotype is marked by fine silvery wiry hair, doughy skin, connective tissue disturbances, and progressive neurologic deterioration.
In Menkes kinky hair syndrome, intestinal copper uptake by brush border cells is normal, but copper transport to other tissues is affected. This change alters the activities of various copper-dependent metalloenzymes. Male infants who are affected typically die by the time they are aged 2-3 years. Carrier female patients may have only a hair-shaft abnormality.