DANGER HIGH VOLTAGE!!!

CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART

cardiac-conduction-system-1-728

The heart requires an eletrical stimulus to initiate muscle contraction. The cardiac cells at rest are considered polarized (NO ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IS TAKING PLACE). After the stimulus occurs, ions cross the cell membrane and cause cell depolarization. This leads to MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Repolarization occurs as the cell returns to its resting state. When depolarization and repolarization occur, the resulting electrical impulse travels through a pathway called the conduction system.

IS IT SAFE AND ARE YOU SAFE?

MEDICATION SAFETY FOR NURSING STUDENTS AND RNs

pills

A. Follow the five R’s of medication delivery: Right patient, Right medication, Right dose, Right route, Right time

B. Use at least 2 patient identifiers when administering medications (NAME AND DATE OF BIRTH)

C. Identify and verify any patient allergies

D. Label any medication when it is transferred from its original package to another container

E. Discard any unlabeled medication or solution immediately

F. Monitor patients for adverse medication reactions and document interventions to treat adverse reactions

ARE YOU A GROUPIE?

 

STUDY GROUPS IN NURSING SCHOOL

study group

Studying with a group of students can be an excellent way to energize your studying. Working with a group allows you test each other on the material you have reviewed. Group studying can give you encouragement and motivation.

Exercise caution when assembling a study group. A person that does not fit your needs will not help you make the most of your study time

Look for people that:

A. Possesses similar goals to yours

B. Possesses about the same level of knowledge as you

C. Can study without excess chatting or interruptions

 

GET INTO THE GROOVE!!!

TAKING CARE OF YOURSELF IN NURSING SCHOOL

tub

Never neglect your physical and mental well-being in favor of longer study hours. Maintaining physical and mental health is critical for success in nursing school.

You can increase your chances of passing your tests by:

A. Getting plenty of rest. You cannot think deeply or concentrate for long periods when you are tired

B. Drink enough NON-CAFFEINATED beverages. Mild dehydration increases the effort required to concentrate and reason while distracting attention through feelings of fatigue and thirst

C. Eat nutritious meals. Maintaining your energy level is impossible when you are undernourished

D. Exercise regularly. Regular exercise helps you work harder and think more clearly. As a result, you will study more efficiently and increase the likelihood of success

 

CAN U STAY FOCUSED!?

MAINTAINING CONCENTRATION IN NURSING SCHOOL

concentrate

When you are faced with reviewing the amount of information covered by the NCLEX, it is easy to become distracted and lose your concentration. When you lose your concentration, you make less effective use of valuable study time. So how do you stay focused?

Keep these tips in mind

A. Alternate the order of the subjects you study during the day to add variety to your study.

B. Approach your studying with enthusiasm, sincerity, and determination

C. Once you have decided to study, begin immediately

D. Concentrate on accomplishing one task at a time

E. Do not try to do two things at once

F. Allow time for periodic breaks to give yourself a change of pace

 

TELL ME WHAT U SEE?

DETACHED RETINA

eye

A hole or tear in or separation of the sensory retina from the pigmented epithelium.

A. It can be result of increasing age, eye trauma, severe myopia, retinopathy (diabetes), glaucoma surgery, family, cataract, or personal history

B. Resealing is done by surgery

1. Cryotherapy (Freezing)

2. Photocoagulation (Laser)

3. Diathermy (Heat)

4. Scleral buckling (Most often used)

NURSING INTERVENTIONS

A. The client maybe on bed rest

B. Administer medication to inhibit accommodation and constriction

C. Administer medication for postoperative pain

D. Place eye patch over affected eye

E. If gas bubble is used (inserted in vitreous), position client so bubble can rise against area to be reattached

F. Teach the client not to do any heavy lifting or straining with bowel movement, and no vigorous activity for several weeks

ALTERED UNIVERSE!!!!

SCHIZOPHRENIA

schizophrenia

Psychiatric disorder characterized by thought disturbance, altered affect, withdrawal from reality, regressive behavior, difficulty with communication,  impaired interpersonal relationships, and impaired ability to perceive reality

A. Catatonic

1. Stupor (Decrease in rxn to the environment) or mutism

2. Rigidity (Maintenance of a posture against efforts to be moved)

3. Posturing (Waxy flexibility)

4. Negativism (Resistance to instructions)

5. Excitement (Severely agitated, out of control)

6. Potential for violence to self or others during stupor or excitement

B. Schizoaffective Disorder diagnosis must include presence of a major mood episode for the majority of the disorders total duration

TEST HINT

When evaluating client behaviors, consider the medications the client is receiving. Exhibited behaviors may be manifestations of schizophrenia or a drug reaction.

I GOT ANTS IN MY PANTS!!!

TEST ANXIETY FOR NURSING STUDENTS

testanxiety

THE FIVE CAUSES OF TEST ANXIETY

1. Test anxiety is a learned behavior

2. The association of grades and personal worth cause test anxiety

3. Test anxiety can come from a feeling of lack of control

4. Test anxiety can be caused by a teacher embarrassing a student

5. Test anxiety can be caused by timed tests and the fear of not finishing the test

TWO TYPES OF TEST ANXIETY

1. Somatic: What you are feeling

2. Cognitive: What you are thinking

TWO REASONS STUDENTS LEAVE THE TEST ROOM EARLY

1. Anxiety level reaches the maximum level and the student has to leave

2. The student does not want to be the last one in the classroom

 

THERE’S A TECHNIQUE FOR THAT!!

RELAXATION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE TEST ANXIETY

relax

THE TENSING RELAXATION METHOD

1. Put your feet flat on the floor

2. Grab underneath the chair with your hands

3. Push down with your feet and pull up on your chair at the same time for about 5 seconds

4. Relax for 5-10 seconds

5. Repeat the procedure 2-3 times

6. Relax all your muscles except the ones that are actually used to take the test

VISUAL IMAGERY

1. Close your eyes

2. Think of some real or imaginary relaxing scene. Mentally visualize this scene (picture yourself on a beach, walking through a forest, or relaxing in front of a fire)

3. Visualize the relaxing scene for 1-2 minutes

DEEP BREATHING

1. Sit straight up in your chair in a good posture position

2. Slowly inhale through your nose to a count of four

3. Hold your breath for a few seconds

4. Exhale slowly through your mouth while counting to four

5. Wait a few seconds and repeat the cycle

7. Notice that your breathing is slower, your body relaxing, and your mind calming

 

GET LOW LOW LOW!!!

SYMPTOMATIC BRADYCARDIA

heart

Serious signs/symptoms due to bradycardia (heart rate <60 bpm)

1. Hypotension

2. Pulmonary congestion

3. Dizziness

4. Shock

5. Ongoing chest pain

6. Shortness of breath

7. CHF

8. Weakness/fatigue

9. Acute altered mental status

Contributing Causes

A.Pulmonary embolism

B. Acidosis: Give oxygen ensure adequate ventilation

C. Tension pneumothorax

D. Cardiac tamponade

E. Hypovolemia

F. Hypoxia

G. Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack)

H. Drug overdose