Lung transplantation involves the replacement of one or both lungs with that from a donor. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the most common underlying disease that necessitates lung transplantation. There are other diseases that require lung transplantation. These are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and sarcoidosis.
Benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan), Diprivan (propofol), and Versed (midazolam) are used for conscious sedation and pre-operative sedation to reduce anxiety and awareness in patients undergoing diagnostic or surgical procedures.
These drugs are also used to relieve anxiety and promote sedation in patients on mechanical ventilators.
WHAT TESTS TELL YOU
A. A 12-lead ECG is the standard test for identifying cardiac arrhythmias.
B. Laboratory testing may reveal electrolyte abnormalities, hypoxemia or acid-base abnormalities, or drug toxicities as the cause of arrhythmias.
C. Exercise testing may reveal exercise-induced arrhythmias
D. Electrophysiologic testing may be used to identify the mechanism of an arrhythmia and location of accessory pathways and to assess the effectiveness of antiarrhythmic drugs.
Nightmare disorder, also known as ‘dream anxiety disorder’, is a sleep disorder characterized by frequent nightmares. The nightmares, which often portray the individual in a situation that jeopardizes their life or personal safety, usually occur during the second half of the sleeping process, called the REM stage
Nightmares can be caused by extreme pressure or irritation if no other mental disorder is discovered. The death of a loved one or a stressful life event can be enough to cause a nightmare but mental conditions like post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric disorders have been known to cause nightmares as well.
If the individual is on medication, the nightmares may be attributed to some side effects of the drug. Amphetamines, antidepressants, and stimulants like cocaine can cause nightmares. Blood pressure medication, levodopa and medications for Parkinson’s disease have also been known to cause nightmares
Bad breath, also called halitosis, can be embarrassing and in some cases may even cause anxiety. It’s no wonder that store shelves are overflowing with gum, mints, mouthwashes and other products designed to fight bad breath. But many of these products are only temporary measures because they don’t address the cause of the problem.
Certain foods, health conditions and habits are among the causes of bad breath. In many cases, you can improve bad breath with consistent proper dental hygiene. If simple self-care techniques don’t solve the problem, see your dentist or physician to be sure a more serious condition isn’t causing your bad breath.
Most bad breath starts in your mouth, and there are many possible causes. They include:
- Food. The breakdown of food particles in and around your teeth can increase bacteria and cause a foul odor. Eating certain foods, such as onions, garlic, and other vegetables and spices, also can cause bad breath. After you digest these foods, they enter your bloodstream, are carried to your lungs and affect your breath.
- Tobacco products. Smoking causes its own unpleasant mouth odor. Smokers and oral tobacco users are also more likely to have gum disease, another source of bad breath.
- Poor dental hygiene. If you don’t brush and floss daily, food particles remain in your mouth, causing bad breath. A colorless, sticky film of bacteria (plaque) forms on your teeth and if not brushed away, plaque can irritate your gums (gingivitis) and eventually form plaque-filled pockets between your teeth and gums (periodontitis). The uneven surface of the tongue also can trap bacteria that produce odors. And dentures that aren’t cleaned regularly or don’t fit properly can harbor odor-causing bacteria and food particles.
- Dry mouth. Saliva helps cleanse your mouth, removing particles that may cause bad odors. A condition called dry mouth — also known as xerostomia (zeer-o-STOE-me-ah) — can contribute to bad breath because production of saliva is decreased. Dry mouth naturally occurs during sleep, leading to “morning breath,” and is made worse if you sleep with your mouth open. Some medications can lead to a chronic dry mouth, as can a problem with your salivary glands and some diseases.
- Infections in your mouth. Bad breath can be caused by surgical wounds after oral surgery, such as tooth removal, or as a result of tooth decay, gum disease or mouth sores.
- Other mouth, nose and throat conditions. Bad breath can occasionally stem from small stones that form in the tonsils and are covered with bacteria that produce odorous chemicals. Infections or chronic inflammation in the nose, sinuses or throat, which can contribute to postnasal drip, also can cause bad breath.
- Medications. Some medications can indirectly produce bad breath by contributing to dry mouth. Others can be broken down in the body to release chemicals that can be carried on your breath.
- Other causes. Diseases, such as some cancers, and conditions such as metabolic disorders, can cause a distinctive breath odor as a result of chemicals they produce. Chronic reflux of stomach acids (gastroesophageal reflux disease) can be associated with bad breath. Bad breath in young children may be caused by a foreign body, such as a small toy or piece of food, lodged in a nostril.
WHAT CAUSES FLAPPING TREMOR?
Hepatic “flapatic” encephalopathy. This may be due to alcoholic cirrhosis but is not the same as delirium tremens.
WHAT ARE THE DISEASES OF HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA?
A. Most are Direct: Conjugated means the first letters are consonants
B. A few are Indirect: Unconjugated means the first letters are vowels. An example: Crigler-Najjar (The liver says, “I do not know what language that is, so I can’t conjugate you”) Melissa Gilbert of Litte House on the Prairie cannot get into her house, just as bilirubin can’t enter the liver thus it winds up unconjucated in the blood).
The two strange forms of conjugated hyper-bilirubinemia are Dubin-Johnson and Roto’s disease. Rotor produces a regular-colored liver, whereas Dubin-Johnson colors the liver black. Remember Rotor is Regular colored while Dubin-Johnson is Dark colored.
It is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute psychosis, mania, delirium, tics in Tourette syndrome, choreas, nausea and vomiting in palliative care, intractable hiccups, agitation and severe anxiety. Haloperidol is a butyrophenone derivative and functions as an inverse agonist of dopamine. It is classified as a typical antipsychotic and has pharmacological effects similar to the phenothiazines.
HALDOL IS USED TO CONTROL THE SYMPTOMS
- Acute psychosis, such as drug-induced psychosis caused by LSD, psilocybin, amphetamines, ketamine, and phencyclidine, and psychosis associated with high fever or metabolic disease
- Hyperactivity, aggression
- Hyperactive delirium (to control the agitation component of delirium)
- Otherwise uncontrollable, severe behavioral disorders in children and adolescents
- Agitation and confusion associated with cerebral sclerosis
- Adjunctive treatment of alcohol and opioid withdrawal
- Treatment of severe nausea and emesis in postoperative and palliative care, especially for palliating adverse effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in oncology
- Treatment of neurological disorders, such as tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, and chorea
- Therapeutic trial in personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder
- Treatment of intractable hiccups
- Also used in aquaculture to block dopamine receptors to enable GnrHA function for ovulation use in spawning fish
- Alcohol-induced psychosis
FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES
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