Absence of urine production

Anuria is often caused by failure in the function of kidneys. It may also occur because of some severe obstruction like kidney stones or tumors. It may occur with end stage renal disease. It is a more extreme reduction than oliguria, sometimes called anuresis.


Failure of kidney function, which can have multiple causes including medications or toxins (diabetes and  high blood pressure). Stones or tumors in the urinary tract can also cause it by creating an obstruction to urinary flow. High blood calcium, oxalate, or uric acid, can contribute to the risk of stone formation. In males, an enlarged prostate gland is a common cause of obstructive anuria.

Acute anuria, where the decline in urine production occurs quickly, is usually a sign of obstruction or acute renal failure. Acute renal failure can be caused by factors not related to the kidney, such as heart failure, mercury poisoning, infection, and other conditions that cause the kidney to be deprived of blood flow.


Treatment is dependent on the underlying cause of this symptom. The most easily treatable cause is obstruction of urine flow, which is often solved by insertion of a urinary catheter into the urinary bladder.




Identification of transplanted tissue as foreign and subsequent attack of that tissue by a recipient’s immune system. Classified as hyperacute, acute, or chronic.

Transplant rejection is when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient’s immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue. Transplant rejection can be lessened by determining the molecular similitude between donor and recipient and by use of immunosuppressant drugs after transplant.





Gloves, Masks, Eye protection, Shoe Covers, and Gowns

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is any type of face mask, glove, or clothing that acts as a barrier between infectious materials and the skin, mouth, nose, or eyes (mucous membranes). When used properly, personal protective equipment can help prevent the spread of infection from one person to another.




Any condition characterized by subjective complaints, a specific history, clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory or radiographic findings.

A disease is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of an organism. It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by factors originally from an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, “disease” is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person.




Condition that occurs when skin tissues are exposed to temperatures cold enough to cause them to freeze.

Frostbite occurs when the skin and body tissue just underneath it freezes. Your skin becomes very cold, then numb, hard and pale. Frostbite typically affects smaller, more exposed areas of your body, such as your fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks and chin.

Frostnip, the first stage of frostbite, irritates the skin but doesn’t cause permanent damage. You can treat mild forms of frostbite with first-aid measures, including slowly warming your skin with warm water. Severe frostbite, however, requires medical attention, as it can damage skin, tissues, muscle and bones and lead to complications, such as infection and nerve damage.


  • A slightly painful, prickly or itching sensation
  • Red, white, pale or grayish-yellow skin
  • Hard or waxy-looking skin
  • A cold or burning feeling
  • Numbness
  • Clumsiness due to joint and muscle stiffness
  • Blistering, in severe cases

Frostbite typically affects smaller, more exposed areas of the body, such as your fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks and chin. Because of area numbness, you may not realize you have frostbite until someone else points it out.


  • Frostnip. The first stage of frostbite is frostnip — a mild form of frostbite in which your skin turns red and feels very cold. Continued exposure leads to prickling and numbness in the affected area. As your skin warms, you may feel pain and tingling. Frostnip doesn’t permanently damage the skin.


  • Superficial frostbite. The second stage of frostbite appears as reddened skin that turns white or very pale. The skin may remain soft, but some ice crystals may form in the tissue. Your skin may begin to feel deceptively warm — a sign of serious skin involvement. If you treat frostbite at this stage, the surface of your skin may appear mottled, blue or purple as it’s warmed or thawed. With warming, you may notice stinging, burning and swelling. A fluid-filled blister may appear 24 to 36 hours after rewarming the skin.
  • Severe or deep frostbite. As frostbite progresses, it affects all layers of the skin, including the tissues that lie below. You may experience deceptive numbness in which you lose all sensation of cold, pain or discomfort. Joints or muscles may no longer work. Large blisters form 24 to 48 hours after rewarming. Afterward, the area turns black and hard as the tissue dies.





Chronic skin disease that results in patchy loss of skin pigment

Vitiligo is a disease that causes the loss of skin color in blotches. The extent and rate of color loss from vitiligo is unpredictable. It can affect the skin on any part of your body. It may also affect hair, the inside of the mouth and even the eyes.

Normally, the color of hair, skin and eyes is determined by melanin. Vitiligo occurs when the cells that produce melanin die or stop functioning.

Vitiligo affects people of all skin types, but it may be more noticeable in people with darker skin. The condition is not life-threatening or contagious. It can be stressful or make you feel bad about yourself. Treatment for vitiligo may improve the appearance of the affected skin but does not cure the disease.

The main sign of vitiligo is color (pigment) loss that produces light or white patches on your skin. Usually, the discoloration first shows on sun-exposed areas, such as the hands, feet, arms, face and lips.

Vitiligo signs include:

    • Skin discoloration
    • Premature whitening or graying of the hair on your scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows or beard (usually before age 35)
    • Loss of color in the tissues that line the inside of your mouth and nose (mucous membranes)
    • Loss of or change in color of the inner layer of the eyeball (retina)

Discolored patches around the armpits, navel, genitals and rectum






Having an unknown or uncertain cause

An idiopathy is any disease with unknown pathogenesis or apparently spontaneous origin. Idiopathy means approximately “a disease of its own kind”. For some medical conditions, one or more causes are somewhat understood, but in a certain percentage of people with the condition, the cause may not be readily apparent or characterized. In these cases, the origin of the condition is said to be idiopathic.




Acquired within the hospital

Urinary tract infections are the most common type of nosocomial infection.

What Causes Nosocomial Infections

Nosocomial infections are caused by pathogens that easily spread through the body. Many hospital patients have compromised immune systems, so they are less able to fight off infections. In some cases, patients develop infections due to poor conditions at a hospital or a healthcare facility, or due to hospital staff not following proper procedures.

Some patients acquire nosocomial infections by interacting with other patients. Others encounter bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses in their hospital environment.

What Are the Symptoms of Nosocomial Infections

Symptoms of nosocomial infections vary by type. They include inflammation, discharge, fever, and abscesses. Patients may experience pain and irritation at the infection site, and many experience visible symptoms.